Installing and operating cranes with safety measures is the whole responsibility of the user or the owner. The crane should be well inspected, maintained, tested, and operated in accordance with the local laws, regulations, and safety measures.
Undetected defects in safety-related components can lead to failure so it is necessary to carry out a detailed inspection with visual observations and measurements. Cranes that operate on heavy loads for longer periods can develop cumulative fatigue and other adverse characteristics that may raise safety issues for both the machine and staff.
As one of the top EOT crane Manufacturers in Bangalore, we have a rich experience in EOT crane manufacturing in Bangalore. We ABCO Engineers company in accordance with the standard safety protocol.
In this article, we will discuss the safety requirements of electric overhead cranes and their lifting equipment.
Daily Operator Inspection Requirements
● Daily inspection should be performed before the operation of the overhead crane at each shift.
● Check the position of the hoist, it should not be tagged out. It is usually located at the power disconnect to the runway/push-button station if it is in the right place.
● Make sure all sheaves are moving freely and sheave covers are in place.
● Inspect the hook for the following
● Is the safety latch in place and does it operate correctly?
● Condition of the hook, is it bent or twisted? The twist should not exceed 10' from the plane of unbent hook or follow as recommended by your manufacturer.
● Throat opening should not increase more than 15% or as recommended by your manufacturer.
● Bowl condition, check for any gauges, cuts that may damage synthetic slings
● Rotation of the hook, it should freely rotate 360'.
● Inspect metal rope, make sure there are no kinks, broken strands, bird caging, corrosion, core protrusion, or crushed sections of rope.
● Thoroughly inspect control devices and make sure there are working fine.
● Visually inspect system conditions like runway system, bridge, trolley, hoist connection, mainline conductor bar system.
● Verify operational functions; do all directional buttons and motion function correctly? test the hoist limit switches and travel limit switches, lights, horns, oil leakage, brakes, etc.
If any faults, damages, or malfunctions are found during the daily inspection routine, the operator should immediately bring to the notice to the concerned person for corrective actions and should inform the same to all the staff.
In addition to daily inspection, periodic inspections of overhead cranes have also to be carried out for safety reasons.
A periodic inspection is a detailed inspection of every component of the machine. It involves visual inspection and operational inspection of each component. Usually, periodic inspection is carried out on a quarterly basis.
A periodic inspection ensures the safety of both the machine and the staff.
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Components checked for periodic inspection:
1. Structures - Check for deformed, cracked, corroded, or unsecured members
2. Signs and Labels - Are they clearly visible?
3. Connection Points - Check for loose/broken bolts and weldings
4. Sheaves and Drums - Check for worn grooves, sharp edges, and cracks.
5. Shafts, Axles, Wheels, Couplings - Check for worn, cracked, bent, or broken parts.
6. Brakes (holding and control) - Check for the proper functioning of the electric control brake.
7. Indicators, Gauges - Check for load, wind, and other indicators over their full range function.
8. Self-Contained Electric, Hydraulic, or Gasoline Powered Generating Units
9. Transmissions - Check the status and function of the gearbox
10. Electrical Components - Check for loose wires and the functioning of electrical and electronic components.
11. Covers and Guards - Check that all covers or guards are in place, secure and undamaged.
12. Bumpers and End Stops - Check all bumpers and end stops for damage
13. Trolley and Runway Rail - Check rails and fastening devices for looseness, gaps, misalignment or wear.
14. Runway Structure - Check runway structure for proper anchors, loose bolted connections, corrosion, cracked or deformed members.
15. Conductor System - Check for the alignment, fastening, splices, power feeds, etc
16. Below-the-Hook Devices - Check for cracks or structural damage
● Do not overload the crane or hoist. During the operation of the overhead crane make sure the load does not exceed the rated load.
● Do not operate the overhead crane when any abnormal sounds or vibration is detected.
● Follow the signal from the designated person only.
● Do not allow other people near the crane.
● In order to move the load, directly place the hoist above the load and lift it up to minimize the load swing.
● Before lifting ensure that no one is there close to the crane.
● While lifting the load, first lift only a few inches in order to verify the function of the hoist brake.
● Ensure rigging is appropriate as per the load size, shape, and weight.
● Always maintain a clear view of the crane path traveling.
● Always use continuous motion while moving, since the machine deals with a heavy load stopping and moving causes load swing.
● Concentration is very important, do not speak to people or use mobile phones.
● Never leave a suspended load unattended, it's dangerous. Lower the load to the ground before leaving the place.
● When the crane is not in use, always raise the crane hook above head level in order to avoid fatalities or accidents.
Standard Hand Signals:
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